JOMOPANS explored new ways to assess ambient noise and next steps are now being taken. The EU is developing threshold values for underwater noise and OSPAR will make a Regional Action Plan to manage underwater noise in the OSPAR region. At national level technological ad operational measures are being prepared to mitigate the effects of noise from human activities at sea. Further improvement of soundscape modelling and measurements is needed as well as the technology to reduce noise. The effects of underwater noise on marine life needs to be investigated thoroughly. Preferably these next steps should be made explicit with certain geographical areas in mind. 

Policy related topics
There 
are various ideas on underwater noise policy measures. These ideas are tested in a very limited way, where not all consequences of a policy have been evaluated properly. A new project can investigate various measures all the way through. A link should be made to the Blue Economy: for most countries the effects of renewable energy at sea need to be assessed.
•    Silent ships: Silent ships are a technological issue, but policies should be investigated that can incentivise ship builders and ship owners to build silent ships.
•    Slow shipping: The cost and benefits of slow shipping must be evaluated thoroughly, including economic factors. What are the costs in lost time? What benefits in fuel consumption can be expected? It could be that ship owners will change ship propellers more appropriate for slow shipping. This will change the noise characteristics, but it is unknown how. At least the URN database should be updated for this.
•    Noise protected areas: It is proposed to investigate, whether it is possible to create noise protected areas. How large should such an area be? How far should shipping lanes be away from the area? How well can a noise protected area be really protected? This should include an economic evaluation of the consequences for rerouting shipping and fisheries from a noise protected area.

Technology
The
 technology issues in line with Jomopans are the measurement technology and the propagation modelling.
•    Source characterisation: It is proposed to add more noise source types. To do this the source characteristics need to be determined and added to the database. There is much demand on information on the effects of offshore energy, like wind. Furthermore, it is needed to get a better handle on elusive noise sources, like recreational ships and smaller fishing boats.
•    Flexible monitoring: A more robust method for a measurement network design is needed. JOMOPANS has found that a more flexible measurement approach (rather than measuring for one year in one place) could lead to more information from the same amount of data. This has consequences on how to manage that data and how to do the analysis.
•    Data analysis: Jomopans delivered a validation of soundscape maps with measurement data. A number of questions related to the validation need to be addressed. A lot of data is available from JOMOPANS and a lot of analyses can be done on these data. A better estimation of the background sound levels from measurement data needs to be calculated. Automated identification of ocean noise can be developed.

Marine life
More knowledge is needed on various species, different effects, frequency dependency. This includes selecting indicator species that are representative for the effects of ambient noise on marine life. Seasonal distribution maps of relevant species need to be improved. Furthermore, there is a need to improve audiograms for various fish species. Many topics on marine life are part of the SATURN project: this project is highly ambitious and it is too early to identify the topics to elaborate further.
Marine life
Three 
regional case studies will be selected that will be viewed across all topics.
Norwegian trench and/or Arctic region
(1) Due to melting ice in the Arctic region shipping is expected to increase with environmental effects.
(2) The geography gives specific challenges to the measurements and modelling of underwater sound.
(3) The most deep part of the North Sea with specific species to be viewed.
Wadden Sea
(1) Unesco world heritage site with specific challenges. The types of ships in the Wadden Sea differ from the main North Sea, with more recreational vessels and small fishing ships.
(2) The Wadden Sea is very shallow and for a large part an intertidal area. This poses special challenges to modelling and measurements.
(3) Specific species for shallow water to be addressed.
Dogger Bank
(1) From Jomopans to be found as most quiet area in the North Sea and potential ‘noise protected area’.
(2) The distance from the shore is a measurement challenge.
(3) Marine life is abundant.
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